Republican Specialized Scientific Practical Medical Center of Hematology

HISTORY

The history of the Uzbek Research Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion is closely related to the development of hematology and transfusiology in Uzbekistan.

Alexander Nikolaevich Kryukov, who arrived in Tashkent in 1920 to organize the medical faculty of the first State University in Central Asia, is rightfully considered the founder of the hematological school in Uzbekistan.

A.N. Kryukov, his students and followers I.A. Kassirsky, M.I. Slonim, G.A. Alekseev, O. N. Pavlova, E.I. Atakhanov, N.I. Ismailov, A.A. Askarov, G.S. Suleimanova, K.G. Titov, R.S. Gershenovich studied in detail the picture of peripheral blood in sprue, pellagra, malaria and revealed some aspects of etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture of individual hematological diseases, introduced sternal puncture according to M.A. Arinkin, which is of great importance in the study of bone marrow hematopoiesis.A.N. Kryukov, his students and followers I.A. Kassirsky, M.I. Slonim, G.A. Alekseev, O. N. Pavlova, E.I. Atakhanov, N.I. Ismailov, A.A. Askarov, G.S. Suleimanova, K.G. Titov, R.S. Gershenovich studied in detail the picture of peripheral blood in sprue, pellagra, malaria and revealed some aspects of etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture of individual hematological diseases, introduced sternal puncture according to M.A. Arinkin, which is of great importance in the study of bone marrow hematopoiesis.

Simultaneously with hematology, the business of blood transfusion developed. The first blood transfusion room was opened in 1930, in Tashkent at the surgical clinic of Professor I.I. Orlova. The organizer and the first head was an assistant of the clinic, later professor, Vasily Kosmich Yasevich. The Cabinet worked on a voluntary basis, with no approved staff and no funding for donors. The first donors were medical workers and relatives of patients.

The use of blood for the treatment of many serious diseases, the need for systematic preparation of blood, the organization of donation, the production of standard sera required the creation of a full-time institution.

In 1934, the blood transfusion room was reorganized into the Central Blood Transfusion Station. The station was provided with appropriate premises, staffing and appropriations were released. In 1934-1935. blood transfusion departments were opened at the Samarkand Medical Institute (A.I. Zverev), the Bukhara City Hospital (P.N. Karlenko), the Kokand Interdistrict Hospital (K.G. Usova), in the city of Termez (S.A. Sakfeld). In subsequent years, blood transfusion departments were opened in other cities of the republic.

The increased importance of blood transfusion in the treatment of many serious diseases, the widespread use of blood transfusions in clinical medicine required a scientific substantiation of this therapeutic method, the study of the effect of transfused blood on the patient's body. There was a need for organizational and methodological management of blood service institutions. It was required to increase the procurement of blood, hemagglutinating sera, create a permanent cadre of donors, as well as train hematologists, transfusiologists and nurses in blood sampling and transfusion.

To fulfill the tasks set in October 1940, the Uzbek Research Institute of Blood Transfusion was organized, which was later renamed the Research Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion of the Ministry of Health of the Uzbek SSR.

The first director of the institute was T.A. Yusupov. An important role in the organization of the Institute belongs to the Honored Scientist of the Uzbek SSR, Professor V.K. Yasevich, who was the scientific director of the Institute. A significant contribution to the establishment of the Institute was made by M.3. Itin, E.I. Atakhanov, A. Yu. Yunusov, S.A. Agzamhodzhaev, K.B. Boltaev, A.T. Astanov, G.S. Suleimanov. In the year of organization, the institute had 3 departments: recruiting donors and work on the periphery, blood preparation, blood processing and preparation of standard sera.

By the beginning of 1941, the branches opened in the cities of the republic became branches of the institute and transferred to its budget. Employees of the institute and its branches helped to organize strong points for blood transfusion in hospitals, maternity hospitals, polyclinics, promoted blood transfusion as a method of treatment, trained doctors and nurses in transfusion techniques, and carried out campaigning to attract the population to donation.

By the beginning of the Second World War, the blood service of the republic included the institute, 13 of its branches and 41 strong points. The institute supervised the implementation of an important task - the provision of hospitals located on the territory of Uzbekistan and medical institutions of the republic with blood and blood substitutes. Thanks to the selfless work of blood service institutions and the patriotism of thousands of donors, lives were saved and the health of many defenders of the Motherland was restored.

In the post-war period, the institute became a base for broad scientific research, a center for the training of scientific and practical personnel in the field of hematology and transfusiology.

Since 1953, the institute has established full-time positions of clinical residents, since 1957 - junior research workers, since 1962 - post-graduate students. In 1964, the Ministry of Health of the Uzbek SSR allowed to send candidates of medical sciences, senior research workers of the institute to Moscow and Leningrad to train doctors of medical sciences. In 1962, according to a standard design, a new building was built, equipped with modern equipment, which houses all laboratories and departments of the institute.

The first in the republic hematology department with 25 beds was organized in 1937 on the initiative of Professor V.K. Yasevich. Head of department C.3. Slepakov. During the war, the department was expanded to 60 beds, in 1960 - to 100. Hematological beds were organized at the therapeutic and children's somatic departments of regional and district hospitals, and hematological departments were opened for the treatment of adults and children. The institute provided methodological guidance for the organization.

From 1961 to 1984, the Research Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion (UzNIIGiPK) was headed by Kh.A. Khakimov. During this period, under his leadership, a rather powerful and solid material and technical base of the institute was created: new scientific laboratories, hematological departments, a hemophilic center with a boarding school were opened, the capacities of production transfusiology were developed, which made it possible to increase the volume and range of products (hematological components and hematological preparations).

The first stage of the construction of the modern Republican Hematological Center, begun with the support of the head of the republic of that period Sh.R. Rashidov. In the regional centers of Uzbekistan, the number of hematological departments (beds) has increased, technological equipment has improved (tables for blood fractionation, refrigerators of low and ultra-low temperatures, buses with operating rooms for preparing blood in field conditions, etc.).In the existing or newly opened regional, city blood transfusion stations, donation for free blood donation is widely deployed, which contributed to a significant improvement in hematological and transfusiological care for the population of the republic.

With the active assistance of Kh.A. Khakimov, during the years of his leadership of the institute, 7 doctoral and 51 candidate dissertations were successfully defended. He himself has published over 120 scientific works, including 3 monographs. For a huge contribution to practical health care and medical science, Kh.A. Khakimov was awarded the title of "Honored Doctor of the Republic" and "Honored Scientist". It is safe to say that the current achievements of hematology and transfusiology are to a certain extent related to the contribution of H.A. Khakimov, during his almost 25-year leadership, a very important hematological scientific center of Uzbekistan for medicine and practical health care.

Since 1963 W.A. Altybaev linked his fate and creative activity with the Research Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan. W.A. Altybaev, in the position of the head of the surgical clinic of the Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, carried out a number of serious organizational measures to establish and develop surgical hematology in the republic, to study the features of surgical interventions in patients with diseases of the blood system. He personally and together with his colleagues conducted in-depth research on the study of the surgical aspects of aplastic anemia and epidemiology and the treatment of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. He, together with Khakimov Kh.A., organized a Center for sick children with hemophilia with a boarding school.

Along with numerous scientific articles, he wrote the monograph “Thrombocytopenic purpura” (co-authored with V.A. A. Zhuravlev and O. N. Savelyev, Kirov, Russia).